There are no clearly-cut explanations for why an individual becomes a criminal. We suspect that violence in a family is one of many contributing factors, but we cannot guarantee that every child from a cruel family is destined to becoming an adult criminal. Family issues, mental specifics, socioeconomic environment, and peer pressure are the major factors that explain cruelty, and people with criminal inclination are subject to several or all of them.
All of the risk factors are quite predictable. As scientists have not found any particular genes that cause criminal behavior, the pressure of social environment comes in the spotlight. Poverty and negative family impacts usually come hand in hand, and criminologist may not even bother searching for more reasons behind one’s criminal nature. And that is how the surface factors mislead criminologists.
Another common factor widely associated with crime is a mental illness. Though the total number of people with mental illness is about 20 percent all over the US, they make up a majority of inmates in state and federal prisons. Though so many people with depression or dementia are more dangerous to themselves than to the society, the correlation between psychotic conditions and crime is undeniable.
Juvenile delinquency often comes as a result of peer pressure. Children are especially susceptible to provocations and tend to do before they think. It is not a rare case when parents of entirely healthy, disciplined, and kind children are reported that their child has been involved in some petty crime. Certainly, the peer pressure stimulates crime when no other factors can cause it.
Bullying is an inevitable part of a school life because of one unchangeable condition – all children are different. And not all of them can control their emotions and behavior in the peer environment where they can possibly become leaders. So, children who think they are superior to others allow themselves to insult timid kids who are usually antisocial, scared, and unconfident. Therefore, bullies target those who allow being bullied revealing their weakness and fear. But bullying is an act of aggression, in the first place, and it cannot be justified by any excuse.
It would be fair to make parents responsible for the social behavior of their children. After all, bullying frequently results from violence in the family or child abuse. The problem is that parents will never suspect that their child is a bully unless they see them among the peers. Teachers and staff are much more likely to discover a bully among students. Researchers claim that zero-tolerance policies do not work, therefore, principals must find the way to handle cases of bullying without expelling kids.
It is important that parents and teachers combined their efforts to eliminate bullying. In case if parents of bullies refuse to recognize the behavior of their kids, schools shall apply some punishment. Special prevention groups shall assist teachers to improve the climate in groups. Work in groups is very important because bullies rarely act on their own. They have the courage to attack if there is a clique of adherents behind their backs.
Believe it or not, poverty is the main reason behind crimes in the society. This statement was supported by the statistics from World Bank that shows lower crime rates in areas with high equality and income. Numerous cases of homicide, drug trafficking, violence, and vandalism are explained by the lack of money or other essential resources. People who can hardly make their living do not care about values of others too much – they feel injustice towards themselves and easily justify violent actions as attempts to restore the balance.
Reduction of crimes is not something we can directly reinforce. Education works quite well to the extent when people have a chance to apply it and earn income and social position. Otherwise, the community starts searching for easy ways to get basic commodities. Prevention of crimes shall include comprehensive work on boosting security of income and opportunities for the lowest social class.
Unemployment is a problem that shall be addressed in the first place. Safe workplaces with a steady salary give people a hope for further growth. Unless the community can afford housing, health care, and medicine, they will rely on petty crimes to serve their needs. The low-income teenage community needs more involvement in social life alongside their middle-income peers. The only way for them to get an education is to stay active and motivated to achieve heights their parents have never seen.
Combating poverty is a challenging task, and it is not merely about justice or fairness. Being financially secure means safety and broader development opportunities.
The recent hype around the rise of mental disorders made Americans even more anxious. Bipolar disorder, ADHD, generalized anxiety disorder, and many others are routinely diagnosed in children and adults. While parents keep panicking about their child having a mental disorder, the child may simply develop at their own pace or have another condition that looks like ADHD.
Misdiagnosis happens so often because there are little objective criteria in psychiatry. We have no biological markers that would confirm ADHD or depression. If a patient can take a genetic test and tell for sure whether they have inherited Parkinson’s, for example, everything is a bit more complicated about bipolar disorder.
Ambiguity in symptoms and their descriptions makes more questions than answers in diagnosing a mental disorder. For example, symptoms of ADHD may indicate to other mental diseases (bipolar disorder, autism) or even physical conditions (hypoglycemia, hearing problems, or sleep disorders). All in all, parents may assume their children have a disorder in quite normal situations. There is still nothing wrong with kids getting bored, rebellious, or hyperactive every now and then.
Another cause of misdiagnosis is the wrong qualification of health care provider. In many cases, parents apply to psychologists or psychotherapists who are not qualified to diagnose a mental illness. They rely upon misleading information from caregivers and can interview the patient in a wrong way, which is the shortest way to misdiagnosis. In many cases, a diagnose is required to prescribe just any treatment supposed to bring relief. For this reason, overmedication occurs so frequently in patients who search for non-existent disorders.
Interpersonal communication is a comprehensive category that includes workplace, group, intimate, and romantic interaction. Influenced by the Internet and its advantages, communication in all these spheres has largely transformed. 90% of individuals irrespective of their lifestyles are present on social networks every day. Each of us is accessible to the others every time. Our boss, spouse or completely unknown person can contact us whenever they need. People do not hesitate to interact, they cannot see any limits to communication now. And many of them find this exact factor discouraging.
A vast sociological research conducted in the US confirmed that the increase in wealth and quality of life caused higher isolation among Americans. Constant online accessibility made communication such a routine thing you want to avoid. Many people got tired of empty chatting that took their time and did not give back anything in particular. Under the impact of technology, we became lazier: why go hang out with peers if you are already connected online?
To put some advantages of technology, it simplified business communication. In many cases, you need only safe online connection to work productively and report your progress to the manager. Even in traditional offices, communicating per e-mail sufficiently accelerates performance. Technology has simplified interaction between a provider of services and their clients. In most cases, clients do not even need to communicate with the provider to get their services.
As a result, the impact of technology on interaction is diverse. We cannot address online channels of communication as a negative phenomenon because we gain even more than we loose with the Internet. In fact, the culture of communication is individual to all people, and those who use the net responsibly never complain about how dramatically the technology has changed their lives.