Yet as children, all of us had someone as an example. The parent, their friend or a school teacher – some people who especially inspired us. As we grew up, the necessity for having a role model did not fade away completely. Certainly, we have a friend, colleague, or sports instructor who still looks like an example to us – a person that induces us to change for the better and work on our traits. The fact that we have grown up does not dismiss the necessity of having a role model.
It would be dishonest to assume that we strive only to a positive influence. Our environment certainly includes several role anti-models, or people we would like not to resemble. Perhaps, our authoritarian boss makes working environment too stressful, which gives a way to rejection. Or probably, we have a friend who is a party animal while we are not. As we go clubbing late before a hard working day, we anticipate our future regret. And we do not approve of the behavior of our anti-model. But as we are friends, there is a peer pressure that makes us act in the way we would never do on our own.
Having both positive and negative role model in view is important as we usually strive to perfection. Looking at the people we like and dislike induces us to change our behavior to be more likable to other people (in the first place) and, of course, to ourselves. Both positive and negative examples work pedagogically even if we consider ourselves quite mature personalities.
With the quick spread of smartphones, mobile apps gained all our attention. The demand is so high, that we have apps for everything now, from 2048 to control over household appliances. The main benefit of apps is that you do not have to spare dozens of bookmarks in web-browser or stare at the obsolete web design for mobile devices. Just download a few apps for what you do most frequently, and do not waste your time on browsers. Nevertheless, mobile apps are traditionally associated with the waste of time on social media or video games.
The outcome of using apps depends on the user themselves – are they goal-oriented people or procrastinators? The first category will benefit from using educational software or apps issued by their healthcare provider. Some people do not intend to stare at the screen infinitely if there are pressing things to do (such people do exist). But most of the internet users see apps as a constant entertainment that follows them everywhere. No wonder, they will waste their time on the web and would strive to waste even more of it. The problem is that people are not really interested in their business or hobbies and try to enhance procrastinating by all means.
All of us are masters of their time. We do not allow other people to take away our free time to spare it for relaxation or fun. But ridiculously, we allow mobile apps to do so. All in all, we have all the power to delete useless apps and put our energy into something that means much more to us.
Though Earth is densely packed with living beings, the greater part of the species that ever existed on it has become extinct. Yet before humans started spilling oil into the sea and depleting ozone layer with greenhouse gasses, species died out for certain logical natural reasons. After all, overpopulation is a threat not only to humans, and animals have their own mechanisms to regulate populations.
Climate change is one of the most trustworthy explanations for the extinction of species. About 11,000 years ago, megafauna mammals failed to adapt to a sudden climate change. It is also likely that instead of food, dinosaurs faced early humans that presented more of a threat than food to gigantic reptiles. Anyway, megafauna species by no means could survive in this new environment that formed on Earth, and their extinction made way for present-day reptiles and amphibians.
Several more reasons of natural extinction can be derived from climate change. These are a lack of food, lack of genetic diversity, predation of better-adapted species, unbearable weather conditions, and an invasion of disease. The evidence of meteor strikes is another popular theory to explain the extinction of pre-historic species.
With such a broad evidence that nature regulates populations itself, we cannot deny the impact of humans on the degradation of species. Construction and industrial activity deprive animals of their natural habitat, and the lucky ones have to migrate. Some species that have no alternative habitat (such as polar bears) can simply die out as glaciers melt. A huge human responsibility lies on pollution. If we cannot take away resources from marine species, we can still pollute them. And that is not the activity to be proud of.
Digital technology has not changed music in slightest. The sounds that we all know so well could not exist without the instruments initially producing them. But replication and distribution of music were actually innovative features of the technology that overtook the production. Current digital hardware equipment and advanced software allowed producers to make all sorts of music in the studio, and amateurs with some simple software can make their own tracks. Yet only a couple of decades ago, “magic” could happen only in studios under the guidance of a producers or DJ, and today we already have some basic technology at home.
Half a century ago the first synthesizers appeared and empowered producers to create popular dance and electronic music that is a retro now. Today technological advancement is greatly associated with new genres like dubstep, techno, house, ambient etc. But electronic devices are not targeted at innovators only. Orchestral composers like Hans Zimmer create their heartbreaking symphonies merely using digital devices. They are efficient and produce high-quality precisely-copied instrumental sound replacing the entire orchestra.
While some composers (mostly those writing soundtracks) succeed at commercializing their music, we observe the clear trend towards the democratization of music. One still has to be a producer to record music in the studio, but millions of fans can try to copy their favorite music tracks at home. YouTube provides hundreds of videos on music production allowing fans to create amateur music that was impossible yet 20 years ago.
There are no clearly-cut explanations for why an individual becomes a criminal. We suspect that violence in a family is one of many contributing factors, but we cannot guarantee that every child from a cruel family is destined to becoming an adult criminal. Family issues, mental specifics, socioeconomic environment, and peer pressure are the major factors that explain cruelty, and people with criminal inclination are subject to several or all of them.
All of the risk factors are quite predictable. As scientists have not found any particular genes that cause criminal behavior, the pressure of social environment comes in the spotlight. Poverty and negative family impacts usually come hand in hand, and criminologist may not even bother searching for more reasons behind one’s criminal nature. And that is how the surface factors mislead criminologists.
Another common factor widely associated with crime is a mental illness. Though the total number of people with mental illness is about 20 percent all over the US, they make up a majority of inmates in state and federal prisons. Though so many people with depression or dementia are more dangerous to themselves than to the society, the correlation between psychotic conditions and crime is undeniable.
Juvenile delinquency often comes as a result of peer pressure. Children are especially susceptible to provocations and tend to do before they think. It is not a rare case when parents of entirely healthy, disciplined, and kind children are reported that their child has been involved in some petty crime. Certainly, the peer pressure stimulates crime when no other factors can cause it.
Obviously, fashion trends come and change in cycles. We can hardly invent something new in clothing without making it bizarre but we can easily reinterpret old trends in the present-day context. Old fashion can be easily revived by fresh associations, its link with contemporary art, or even social movements. Designers are artists taking their inspiration from trends that already exist as they found well-known basics productive again.
As a rule, trends revive every 15-20 years. What was old is new again, though with certain modifications. An old fashion can easily become fresh and bright with actual patterns and fabrics. The invention of new textiles makes classics, literally, very flexible. Remember old suits without elastane threads? Now compare them to the chic new ones made of high-quality cloth blend that fits just perfectly and is rather comfortable to wear. The difference is minuscule but it helps to make old clothes fashionable again.
So why exactly 20 years are necessary to relaunch the fashion? It happens mostly because of the generation gap. Old trends are definitely new to the younger generation who never faced the invasion of those clothes in the streets. And while their parents want to forget the times when they could hardly find the alternative, the youth takes on creation a new-old fashion. They take inspiration from the past that is nothing bad as long as it acquires a new interpretation.
The Great Depression of the 1930s still remains a threatening reminder of the high sensitivity of the American economy. The most dramatic economic downfall in the history of the US caused a broad financial damage to the country. Even families without most of their assets invested in the stock market felt a downfall, not to mention businesses and corporations that hardly survived. Though such a massive event did not happen overnight, the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, accelerated the national economic collapse. But Black Tuesday was merely the final part of the chain of processes that gradually destroyed the society of the early 20th century.
The 1920s was the period of false prosperity in the US. Many people used automobiles, telephones, and radio that were a luxury yet a decade before. This was the Jazz Age when television with all its celebrities prospered. The US gained dominance in the world as former global political superpowers tried to compensate for the losses brought by World War I. In the meantime, millions of Americans invested in shares, and banks stimulated their clients with generous loans. Despite the wide income gap in the society, becoming a rich man was easier than ever. And people took advantage of it. When speculation in the stock market pushed prices above the limit, a massive sell-off began. The actual price of bonds and shares fell to unimaginably low rates.
The Great Depression began as the majority of people lost their money and often a workplace. The purchasing power of Americans fell far below previous figures. People stopped purchasing items, and factories stopped their production. The government introduced harsh economic policies to reduce purchasing imported goods, but it neither benefited corporations nor international trade with Europe.
Education is a vital concept not only for teenagers. A part of adults who once dropped out of school too early and did not put their academic potential into life still strives to find a respectable job with a decent salary. As they currently struggle to find a satisfactory job-place with their secondary education, the prospect of free education looks very encouraging. Many adults enroll into such courses with non-economic goals like boosting their awareness or stimulating healthy choices. Development is important to many of them even if creativity or learning cultures do not directly impact their well-being.
Unfortunately, governments cannot see a direct revenue from investing into adult education either. Despite the potential benefits, state governments have currently cut funding for adult educational programs. Officials need to see clearer economic benefits to assume that the taxpayers’ money is not wasted. In terms of postgraduate education, people greatly depend on programs funded corporately. Workplace training and online courses still remain more affordable to employees in progressive companies.
Although governments are reluctant to empower adults for free, there is an evidence that adult education is not charity. Studies conducted by the German Institute for Adult Education have shown that countries that spend at least 1 percent of GDP for adult learning see high rates of participation in those programs. In their turn, countries with higher participation rates show higher levels of economic growth. Meeting their needs, adults improve their living standard and set goals and higher expectations for the future, which has its economic benefit as well.
As parents find the performance of their children totally different in public and private schools, so think teachers about their career prospects in different educational structures. Private schools look much more appealing with their environment, curricula, and schedules than public schools with children from the disadvantaged background, overload, and principal’s pressure. However, those who once applied to both types know that different schools are also very alike. You have to work like an enthusiast without the slightest need for personal life in both of them. But still, every school has its own specifics that form different demands from their staff.
Though the public school environment causes much distress to teachers, private establishments are not a bed of roses either. State schools require constant multitasking for a teacher to create dozens of lesson plans, but in private schools teachers stand under the very close watch of the parents. People who pay considerable sums for the education of their children give no excuse for staff that is not enough efficient. Besides, private schools may also require teachers to be competent in sports and arts that are an essential part of the curriculum.
We can hardly make public school teachers less dedicated just because they feel so many challenges to effective functioning – just on the contrary. If a state school teacher does not run away after years of work, they are very committed to their occupation indeed. The problem is that bureaucracy, plenty of task, huge classrooms, and lack of time to teach make educators in public school inefficient. Many of them struggle to keep up with tasks in their free time and eventually give up teaching. Private schools make more comfortable conditions for teachers to work with students in the first place.
A great part of their day, students spend interacting in their school environment. Children do not enjoy education equally, and each of them gives a different value to their daily companions. This directly determines the impact of the school on their personality formation. Having different types of temperaments, some students are easier to influence than another, but, in general, all children are to the greater extent shaped by their school culture.
School leaders surely set new trends, but these people are not teachers. Students are much more susceptible to the peer’s authority that often creates problems for teachers. The latter have an extremely limited influence on the youth that is limited to a couple of obedient individuals. The rest of students prefer to take a rebellious stand to show that the teacher’s approach to influencing students is much outdated. On the other hand, rebellious mood is facilitated by the teacher’s behavior.
Teachers temperament predetermines the attitude of students. Lenient and timid educators allow students trespass and humiliate themselves emotionally, while tough uncompromising educators leave no room to insults. Even more, authoritarian teachers may suppress phlegmatic students. Sensitive persons and introverts may take an authoritarian style as an insult to their autonomy in the classroom, which inevitably poisons the learning environment. In practice, aggressive teaching methods may improve the discipline and performance to some extent, but they cause emotional distress to those who are never asked to keep silence.
During their teenage years, students and their characters are little influenced by teachers in particular. But on the larger scale, the school with its connections and peer culture shapes children with their perspectives and choices.